North Carolina

Centipedes

Characteristics:
Size: Centipedes are very long and narrow, and flattened from top to bottom. There may be a great many pairs of legs, but they will have a single pair on each segment of the body, separating them from millipedes. They have a pair of very long antennae and the last pair of legs projects backward and are much longer than the ones before it. Most centipedes measure about two inches however, a couple species can grow to six inches or longer.

Color: Color is usually dark reddish brown, although some may have a blue-green tint on a tan background.

Habits: Centipedes are generally nocturnal and hide outdoors under boards, rocks, or vegetation during the day. Indoors, they are usually found on baseboards and around doorways and windows, wandering on walls in crawl spaces, basements or garages.

What Do Centipedes Eat?: Centipedes are nocturnal and come out at night to eat spiders, insects, earthworms and snails.

Reproduction: Females lay their eggs one at a time, burying them under a shallow layer of soil to protect them from being eaten by other insects and male centipedes. Some species live up to six years.

Other Information: Centipedes can inject venom through a pair of appendages directly behind the head.

Oriental Roaches

Characteristics:
Size: The Oriental cockroach is a large roach reaching about 1 inch in length.

Color: They are very dark brown to black. Females are oval shaped and have short stubby wings. Males have wings that do not reach the end of the abdomen.

Habits: Oriental roaches are commonly known as �water bugs� and can be found living outdoors in damp locations such as underground water and sewage systems. Their travel through such unsanitary habitats increases their potential as disease vectors. They often enter structures by crawling under doors or through other exterior openings and often take up residence in damp basements, cellars, crawl spaces, near drains, leaky water pipes and beneath refrigerators, sinks and washing machines, under floors, and inside walls. Oriental cockroaches are nocturnal, avoid light, and, although the male has well developed wings, neither sex can fly.

What Do Oriental Roaches Eat?: These insects feed on garbage and decaying organic matter and are often considered the filthiest of the house-infesting roaches.

Reproduction: Females carry their egg capsules for about one day, and then deposit the capsule in a secluded place. Each capsule has an average of 15 eggs. Eggs hatch in about 60 days and nymphs develop in about one year. Adult females live one to six months.

Other Information: Oriental cockroaches can live without food for up to a month if water is present, but will die in two weeks without food and water.

Red Imported Fire Ants

Characteristics:
Size: This is a highly polymorphic species, with various sizes of workers within a single colony. The largest workers in the colony can be as much as ten times the size of the smallest workers.

Color: The red imported fire ant is covered in long, bristly hairs and is identified by its red head and thorax and red and black abdomen.

Habits: The red imported fire ant is one of the worst ant pests in the U.S. in terms of human health, property damage, and environmental damage. Colonies may have several hundred thousand workers and dozens of queens, and workers very aggressively defend their nest with stinging. Nests are created in the soil and can be identified by the large mound of soil raised above the surface. They are very common in turf. Red imported fire ant nests may go as deep as eight feet in the soil, and produce mounds above ground that are three feet tall and two feet wide. When their mound is disturbed they will rapidly overwhelm the intruder and, on a chemical command, begin stinging simultaneously. Nests may be found in wall voids, rain gutters, bath traps, and under carpets, as well as in electrical equipment.

What Do Red Imported Fire Ants Eat?: The workers are aggressive predators, feeding on any other insects they find as well as small mammals or birds, earthworms, frogs and lizards. They dramatically alter the natural habitat when they move into an area.

Reproduction: Males die after mating and the female creates a brood cell in the soil and deposits 10-15 eggs using her tubelike ovipositor. These hatch in seven to ten days and are fed by the queen. Within 15 days, pupae emerge and begin to forage for food. Within 30 days, larger workers emerge and the colony grows. The queen lives up to seven years and produces an average of 1,600 eggs per day throughout her life. A red imported fire ant colony can hold more than 250,000 ants.

Other Information: Most red imported fire ant stings result in a raised welt that becomes a white pustule. If a person is allergic, however, he or she may experience a more grave reaction. Victims rarely receive a single sting; instead, a person typically receives many hundred stings simultaneously. Red imported fire ant colonies may contain numerous queens and have multiple satellite colonies. Up to 200 mounds per acre have been found.

Springtails

Characteristics:
Size: Springtails are usually less than 1/8 inch long.

Color: Springtails range from black to silvery gray, depending on the species. The distinctive character is the furcula or tail-like mechanism attached to the tip of the abdomen.

Habits: Springtails are so-named because of their sharp projection at the tail end called a furcula. They snap this appendage down on a surface to suddenly spring themselves into the air. Springtails are tiny insects that thrive in damp locations. They live in the soil, in leaf mold, under bark, in decaying logs and on the surface of freshwater pools. When found in structures, their presence may indicate excessive moisture conditions in walls or crawl spaces, under sinks, or around indoor plants. Springtails are harmless to humans, although allergies and dermatitis have been reported in some people sensitive to their presence.

What Do Springtails Eat?: Springtails feed on algae, fungi, and decaying plant materials.

Reproduction:

Other Information: Springtails become active in early spring and may be seen on snow cover, which is why they have often been called snow fleas. They are drawn to water, and commonly appear in vast numbers on the surface of swimming pools, seemingly overnight.

Wolf Spiders

Characteristics:
Size: Wolf spiders vary in size from small species with only 1/2 inch leg spans to large ones whose legs may stretch out 5 inches.

Color: Wolf spiders are long legged and covered with short hairs, gray to brown to dark brown in color, and have several darker stripes.

Habits: Wolf spiders are large, hairy spiders not associated with a web. In fact, they only use silk for lining their nest and covering their eggs. They are very mobile, very fast, and very aggressive when threatened. Smaller species have been knows to run across the water of a swimming pool, suspended on the surface tension of the water. Retreats for the spiders are holes in the soil, under debris on the ground or within woodpiles. They commonly enter structures and can be found running across floors or walls as they search for food.

What Do Wolf Spiders Eat?: Wolf spiders are hunters and hunt for insect prey under cover of night.

Reproduction: The female constructs an egg sac of white papery silk, which she carries around attached with strong silk to her spinnerets. When the spiderlings hatch, they are carried around on the females back until they are ready to disperse by ballooning to the ground.

Other Information: Wolf spiders are often confused with the brown recluse, but they lack the violin-shaped marking behind the head. The wolf spider is shy and runs away when disturbed.

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